An introduction to epistemic injustice - YouTube.
Epistemic injustice is unfairness related to knowledge. The first theory of epistemic injustice was introduced in 2007 by British philosopher Miranda Fricker, who coined the term. According to Fricker, there are two kinds of epistemic injustice: testimonial injustice and hermeneutical injustice.
Thus, a concern about epistemic injustice is not merely a narrow medical or bioethical concern, but a broad and pervasive problem that has particular ethical consequences, in terms of suffering, health inequality and medical treatment, when it plays itself out in the healthcare arena (for a full discussion of epistemic injustice in healthcare, see Carel and Kidd and Kidd and Carel).10, 11.
Healthcare systems rely on complex structures of epistemic norms and expectations, both implicit and explicit, that create knowledge asymmetries - for instance, privileging the knowledge derived from medical training and theory, rather than that potentially rooted in patient experience, which effectively limits epistemic authority to healthcare practitioners.
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Many critics of medicalization (the process by which phenomena become candidates for medical definition, explanation and treatment) express concern that the process privileges individualised, biologically grounded interpretations of medicalized phenomena, inhibiting understanding and communication of aspects of those phenomena that are less relevant to their biomedical modelling.
Epistemic Injustice explores the idea that there is a distinctively epistemic kind of injustice - injustice which consists in a wrong done to someone specifically in their capacity as a knower. Miranda Fricker distinguishes two forms of epistemic injustice: testimonial injustice and hermeneutical injustice.